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Mainz is located on the 50th latitude, on the left bank of the river Rhine , opposite the confluence of the Main with the Rhine. The population in the early was ,, an additional 18, people maintain a primary residence elsewhere but have a second home in Mainz.
The city is part of the Rhein Metro area comprising 5. Mainz can easily be reached from Frankfurt International Airport in 25 minutes by commuter railway Line S8.
Mainz is a river port city as the Rhine which connects with its main tributaries, such as the Neckar , the Main and, later, the Moselle and thereby continental Europe with the Port of Rotterdam and thus the North Sea.
Mainz's history and economy are closely tied to its proximity to the Rhine historically handling much of the region's waterborne cargo.
Today's huge container port hub allowing trimodal transport is located on the North Side of the town. The river also provides another positive effect, moderating Mainz's climate; making waterfront neighborhoods slightly warmer in winter and cooler in summer.
After the last ice age , sand dunes were deposited in the Rhine valley at what was to become the western edge of the city.
The Mainz Sand Dunes area is now a nature reserve with a unique landscape and rare steppe vegetation for this area.
Historical sources and archaeological findings both prove the importance of the military and civilian Mogontiacum as a port city on the Rhine.
Mainz experiences an oceanic climate Köppen climate classification Cfb. As related by Suetonius the existence of Mogontiacum is well established by four years later the account of the death and funeral of Nero Claudius Drusus , though several other theories suggest the site may have been established earlier.
Main is from Latin Menus , the name the Romans used for the river. Linguistic analysis of the many forms that the name "Mainz" has taken on make it clear that it is a simplification of Mogontiacum.
However, it had also become Roman and was selected by them with a special significance. The Roman soldiers defending Gallia had adopted the Gallic god Mogons Mogounus, Moguns, Mogonino , for the meaning of which etymology offers two basic options: Mogontiacum was an important military town throughout Roman times, probably due to its strategic position at the confluence of the Main and the Rhine.
The town of Mogontiacum grew up between the fort and the river. Mainz was also a base of a Roman river fleet, the Classis Germanica.
A temple dedicated to Isis Panthea and Magna Mater was discovered in  and is open to the public. Among the famous buildings were the largest theatre north of the Alps and a bridge across the Rhine.
The city was also the site of the assassination of emperor Severus Alexander in Alemanni forces under Rando sacked the city in From the last day of  or , the Siling and Asding Vandals , the Suebi , the Alans , and other Germanic tribes crossed the Rhine , possibly at Mainz.
Christian chronicles relate that the bishop, Aureus, was put to death by the Alemannian Crocus. The way was open to the sack of Trier and the invasion of Gaul.
Throughout the changes of time, the Roman castrum never seems to have been permanently abandoned as a military installation, which is a testimony to Roman military judgement.
Different structures were built there at different times. The current citadel originated in , but it replaced previous forts.
It was used in World War II. One of the sights at the citadel is still the cenotaph raised by legionaries to commemorate their Drusus.
Through a series of incursions during the 4th century Alsace gradually lost its Belgic ethnic character of formerly Germanic tribes among Celts ruled by Romans and became predominantly influenced by the Alamanni.
The Romans repeatedly reasserted control; however, the troops stationed at Mainz became chiefly non-Italic and the emperors had only one or two Italian ancestors in a pedigree that included chiefly peoples of the northern frontier.
By that time the army included large numbers of troops from the major Germanic confederacies along the Rhine, the Alamanni, the Saxons and the Franks.
The Franks were an opponent that had risen to power and reputation among the Belgae of the lower Rhine during the 3rd century and repeatedly attempted to extend their influence upstream.
In the emperor Julian bought peace by giving them most of Germania Inferior , which they possessed anyway, and imposing service in the Roman army in exchange.
He used Hunnic troops a number of times. Attila went through Alsace in , devastating the country and destroying Mainz and Triers with their Roman garrisons.
As far as the north was concerned this was the effective end of the Roman empire there. His father was a Suebian; his mother, a princess of the Visigoths.
Patrician did not rule the north directly but set up a client province there, which functioned independently.
The capital was at Soissons. Even then its status was equivocal. Many insisted it was the Kingdom of Soissons.
His son, Merovaeus , fought on the Roman side against Attila, and his son, Childeric , served in the domain of Soissons.
Meanwhile, the Franks were gradually infiltrating and assuming power in this domain. They also moved up the Rhine and created a domain in the region of the former Germania Superior with capital at Cologne.
They became known as the Ripuarian Franks as opposed to the Salian Franks. It is unlikely that much of a population transfer or displacement occurred.
The former Belgae simply became Franks. Events moved rapidly in the late 5th century. Clovis, son of Childeric, became king of the Salians in , ruling from Tournai.
In he defeated Syagrius , last governor of the Soissons domain, and took northern France. He extended his reign to Cambrai and Tongeren in —, and repelled the Alamanni in Also in that year he converted to non-Arian Christianity.
After the fall of the Western Roman Empire in , the Franks under the rule of Clovis I gained control over western Europe by the year Clovis annexed the kingdom of Cologne in Thereafter, Mainz, in its strategic position, became one of the bases of the Frankish kingdom.
Mainz had sheltered a Christian community long before the conversion of Clovis. His successor Dagobert I reinforced the walls of Mainz and made it one of his seats.
A solidus of Theodebert I — was minted at Mainz. Charlemagne — , through a succession of wars against other tribes, built a vast Frankian empire in Europe.
Mainz from its central location became important to the empire and to Christianity. Meanwhile, language change was gradually working to divide the Franks.
Mainz spoke a dialect termed Ripuarian. On the death of Charlemagne, distinctions between France and Germany began to be made.
Mainz was not central any longer but was on the border, creating a question of the nationality to which it belonged, which descended into modern times as the question of Alsace-Lorraine.
The first archbishop in Mainz, Boniface , was killed in while trying to convert the Frisians to Christianity and is buried in Fulda. Boniface held a personal title of archbishop; Mainz became a regular archbishopric see in , when Boniface's successor Lullus was granted the pallium by Pope Adrian I.
Harald Klak , king of Jutland, his family and followers, were baptized at Mainz in , in the abbey of St.
From the time of Willigis until the end of the Holy Roman Empire in , the Archbishops of Mainz were archchancellors of the Empire and the most important of the seven Electors of the German emperor.
Besides Rome, the diocese of Mainz today is the only diocese in the world with an episcopal see that is called a Holy See sancta sedes. The Archbishops of Mainz traditionally were primas germaniae , the substitutes of the Pope north of the Alps.
In , Archbishop Siegfried III granted Mainz a city charter, which included the right of the citizens to establish and elect a city council. The city saw a feud between two archbishops in , namely Diether von Isenburg , who was elected Archbishop by the cathedral chapter and supported by the citizens, and Adolf II von Nassau , who had been named archbishop for Mainz by the pope.
In , the Archbishop Adolf raided the city of Mainz, plundering and killing inhabitants. At a tribunal, those who had survived lost all their property, which was then divided between those who promised to follow Adolf.
Those who would not promise to follow Adolf amongst them Johannes Gutenberg were driven out of the town or thrown into prison. The new archbishop revoked the city charter of Mainz and put the city under his direct rule.
Ironically, after the death of Adolf II his successor was again Diether von Isenburg, now legally elected by the chapter and named by the Pope.
The Jewish community of Mainz dates to the 10th century AD. It is noted for its religious education. Rabbi Gershom ben Judah — taught there, among others.
He concentrated on the study of the Talmud , creating a German Jewish tradition. Mainz is also the legendary home of the martyred Rabbi Amnon of Mainz , composer of the Unetanneh Tokef prayer.
The Jews of Mainz, Speyer and Worms created a supreme council to set standards in Jewish law and education in the 12th century.
The city of Mainz responded to the Jewish population in a variety of ways, behaving, in a sense, in a bipolar fashion towards them. Sometimes they were allowed freedom and were protected; at other times, they were persecuted.
The Jews were expelled in , after which they were invited to return , and in Jews were attacked in and by mobs in Outbreaks of the Black Death were usually blamed on the Jews, at which times they were massacred, such as the burning of about 6, Jews alive in Nowadays the Jewish community is growing rapidly, and a new synagogue by the architect Manuel Herz was constructed in on the site of the one destroyed by the Nazis on Kristallnacht in On 18 March , the Jacobins of Mainz, with other German democrats from about towns in the Rhenish Palatinate , proclaimed the ' Republic of Mainz '.
Prussia was not entirely happy with the idea of a democratic free state on German soil although the French dominated Mainz was neither free nor democratic.
Prussian troops had already occupied the area and besieged Mainz by the end of March, After a siege of 18 weeks, the French troops in Mainz surrendered on 23 July ; Prussians occupied the city and ended the Republic of Mainz.
It came to the Battle of Mainz in between Austria and France. Members of the Mainz Jacobin Club were mistreated or imprisoned and punished for treason.
In , the French returned. Austria and Prussia could not but approve this new border with France in Rheinhessen was awarded to the Hesse-Darmstadt , Mainz being the capital of the new Hessian province of Rhenish Hesse.
From to , to the German Confederation Mainz was the most important fortress in the defence against France, and had a strong garrison of Austrian, Prussian and Bavarian troops.
In the afternoon of 18 November , a huge explosion rocked Mainz when the city's powder magazine, the Pulverturm , exploded.
Approximately people were killed and at least injured; 57 buildings were destroyed and a similar number severely damaged in what was to be known as the Powder Tower Explosion or Powder Explosion.
During the Austro-Prussian War in , Mainz was declared a neutral zone. For centuries the inhabitants of the fortress of Mainz had suffered from a severe shortage of space which led to disease and other inconveniences.
In Mayor Carl Wallau and the council of Mainz persuaded the military government to sign a contract to expand the city. Beginning in , the city of Mainz assimilated the Gartenfeld , an idyllic area of meadows and fields along the banks of the Rhine to the north of the rampart.
The city expansion more than doubled the urban area which allowed Mainz to participate in the industrial revolution which had previously avoided the city for decades.
He also planned the first sewer system for the old part of town since Roman times and persuaded the city government to relocate the railway line from the Rhine side to the west end of the town.
The Mainz master builder constructed a number of state-of-the-art public buildings, including the Mainz town hall — which was the largest of its kind in Germany at that time — as well a synagogue, the Rhine harbour and a number of public baths and school buildings.
In the demolition of the entire circumvallation and the Rheingauwall was taken in hand, according to imperial order of Wilhelm II.
During the German Revolution of the Mainz Workers' and Soldiers' Council was formed which ran the city from 9 November until the arrival of French troops under the terms of the occupation of the Rhineland agreed in the Armistice.
The French occupation was confirmed by the Treaty of Versailles which went into effect 28 June The Rhineland in which Mainz is located was to be a demilitarized zone until and the French garrison, representing the Triple Entente , was to stay until reparations were paid.
In Mainz participated in the Rhineland separatist movement that proclaimed a republic in the Rhineland. It collapsed in The French withdrew on 30 June Adolf Hitler became chancellor of Germany in January, and his political opponents, especially those of the Social Democratic Party, were either incarcerated or murdered.
Some were able to move away from Mainz in time. One was the political organizer for the SPD, Friedrich Kellner , who went to Laubach, where as the chief justice inspector of the district court he continued his opposition against the Nazis by recording their misdeeds in a page diary.
They hoisted the swastika on all public buildings and began to denounce the Jewish population in the newspapers.
In , the Nazis remilitarized the Rhineland with great fanfare, the first move of Nazi Germany 's meteoric expansion. The former Triple Entente took no action.
During World War II, more than 30 air raids destroyed about 80 percent of the city's center, including most of the historic buildings.
Mainz was captured on 22 March against uneven German resistance staunch in some sectors and weak in other parts of the city by the 90th Infantry Division under William A.
From to , the city was part of the French zone of occupation. His life in Mainz, and the impact of his writings , is the subject of the Canadian documentary My Opposition: The Diaries of Friedrich Kellner.
Mainz is home to the headquarters of the Bundeswehr' s Landeskommando Rhineland-Palatinate and other units.
The club has played in the Baseball-Bundesliga for more than two decades, winning the German Championship in the and season. The Mainz Athletics played their home games at Sandflora Ballpark between and The field is located between the neighborhoods of Mainz-Mombach and Gonsenheim , an area that was previously the grounds of an American military installation.
Sandflora comprised a baseball and a softball field, both of which were occupied by the Athletics. Since the fields overlap, games could be played on both fields at the same time.
The field lies in a residential neighborhood, the because field can become loud during games, the Athletics had to find a new place to play. In the club played their first game in a new ballpark along the Hartmühlenweg, about meters east of the former facility.
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Mainz Athletics VideoAmistoso / Lagunartekoa 18/19 - FSV Mainz 05 0 Athletic Club 0
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